, pub-9294893883853578, DIRECT, f08c47fec0942fa0 Results of Pfizer's corona vaccine trials

Results of Pfizer's corona vaccine trials

At least three vaccines for the coronavirus have now been approved on an emergency basis and at least 2.5 million people worldwide have been vaccinated. Work on the vaccine will begin on the same day in January 2020. The day China decoded the coronavirus genome and made it public, it gave experts around the world access to that data.

Preliminary research:

Conventional vaccines are made by inactivating the virus, meaning that the vaccine that is given to us contains the virus in a weak form but it does not make us sick - because conventional vaccines contain the virus, there is a possibility of that. The virus (although very rare) is able to replicate in people with very weak immune systems - so the vaccine can cause disease in one or two million people.

Pfizer used new technology to make a vaccine for the coronavirus that uses only some of the proteins in the virus as vaccines instead of viruses - thus virus proteins to make antibodies to the body's immune system. They are found and the body begins to make antibodies, but since the vaccine does not contain the virus, the chances of getting the virus are zero.

Within days of the release of Coronavirus genome data, Pfizer's partner company, BioNTech, separated the code that created the spike protein from the genome data that the coronavirus used to enter the human body. A few days later, the basic structure of the vaccine against the coronavirus was developed, using a fragment of the mRNA that makes spike proteins in the cells. A number of vaccines were also developed using mRNA fragments based on the - scientists at the time did not know which of these experimental vaccines would work best or whether Whether or not any of these vaccines will work

From experiments in the laboratory, the scientists found that the experimental vaccine that uses the spike protein of the coronavirus has the best results - the vaccine was named BNT162b1 and initial tests were started on it.

Preliminary tests:

The first test of any drug is performed on animals so that no human life is endangered if the vaccine is dangerous - so trials of the new coronavirus vaccine BNT162b1 were first performed on mice (that is, drug tests). Is the standard protocol) - now the problem is that mice do not have the receptors that the coronavirus uses to enter the human body (that is why the coronavirus does not make mice sick) - so the genes in mice The engineering was such that their cells began to make receptors that are attacked by the coronavirus - these mice were then vaccinated and within a few days their bodies developed antibodies against the coronavirus. No other side effects were found in these rats.

Phase 1 trial:

When the scientists found out that the vaccine was working as well as they expected at least in mice, the vaccine was tested on 76 people in a phase 1 trial - all of these volunteers were young and healthy. Not only did he not have coronary heart disease before, but he did not have any other disease such as diabetes, blood pressure, heart disease or any other serious disease.

Phase 1 trials were conducted in May and June 2020. The purpose of this trial was to confirm the formation of antibodies against corona in humans and also to determine the dose of the vaccine. Doses ranging from ten micrograms to 100 micrograms were given. The test concluded that the vaccine not only works on humans (ie, makes antibodies against the coronavirus in humans) but also that the vaccine does not contain any major No Dangerous Side Effects - It was also decided that a dose of 30 micrograms would be used for Phase 2 and Phase 3 and that this dose would be given to each volunteer twice with an interval of 21 days.

Phase 2 trial:

The purpose of the Phase 2 trial was to study the side effects of this vaccine and see if the vaccine works equally well on people of different ages and genders. The study included such men and women. They had different ages and some of them had high blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes and other common ailments. People from different nationalities were included in the trial to make sure. There are no nationalities that have a genetic mutation that makes this vaccine dangerous for people of that nationality.

The Phase 2 trial was completed on August 12, 2020, and did not show any significant reactions to the vaccine. The effectiveness of the vaccine was seen positively in Phase 1 and Phase 2 trials and it was also found to be safe. That is why the government allowed Pfizer to start Phase 3 trials. Before we talk about Phase 3 trials, we need to understand the double-blind protocol.

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